Ansible_Day02脚本(PLAYBOOK)

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NSD ARCHITECTURE DAY02

练习1:playbook练习
案例2:变量练习
案例3:handlers练习
案例4:编写playbook
1 练习1:playbook练习
1.1 问题

本案例要求:
安装Apache并修改监听端口为8080
修改ServerName配置,执行apachectl -t命令不报错
设置默认主页hello world
启动服务并设开机自启
1.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。
步骤一:playbook的ping脚本检测

[[email protected] ansible]# vim ping.yml

– hosts: all
remote_user: root
tasks:
– ping:
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook ping.yml //输出结果
PLAY [all] *******************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] *******************************************************
ok: [web1]
ok: [web2]
ok: [cache]
ok: [db1]
ok: [db2]
TASK [ping] ******************************************************************
ok: [db1]
ok: [web2]
ok: [cache]
ok: [web1]
ok: [db2]
PLAY RECAP *******************************************************************
cache : ok=2 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0
db1 : ok=2 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0
db2 : ok=2 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0
web1 : ok=2 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0
web2 : ok=2 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0
注意:如果检测的时候出错,会在当前的目录生成一个新的文件(以.retry结尾),可以去这个文件里面看是哪个主机的错
步骤二:用playbook安装Apache,修改端口,配置ServerName,修改主页,设置开机自启

[[email protected] ansible]# vim http.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
tasks:
– name: install one specific version of Apache
yum:
name: httpd //安装Apache
state: installed
– lineinfile:
path: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
regexp: ‘^Listen ‘
line: ‘Listen 8080’ //修改端口为8080
– replace:
path: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
regexp: ‘^#(ServerName).*’ //配置ServerName
replace: ‘\1 localhost’
– service:
name: httpd
enabled: yes //开机自启
state: restarted
– copy:
src: /root/index.html //修改主页,可以自己写个页面
dest: /var/www/html/index.html
[[email protected] ansible]# curl 192.168.1.56:8080
hello world
[[email protected] ansible]# ssh cache
Last login: Fri Sep 7 09:32:05 2018 from 192.168.1.51
[[email protected] ~]# apachectl -t
Syntax OK
2 案例2:变量练习
2.1 问题

本案例要求熟悉playbook进阶:
练习使用user模块添加用户
练习使用变量简化task,让play通用性更强
练习使用过滤器
2.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。
步骤一:使用user模块添加用户,并修改密码

[[email protected] ansible]# vim user.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
vars:
username: xiaoming
tasks:
– name: create user “{{username}}”
user: group=wheel uid=1000 name={{username}}
– shell: echo 123456 | passwd –stdin xiaoming
– shell: chage -d 0 {{username}}
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook user.yml //执行结果
PLAY [cache] ******************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [create user ” xiaoming “] ***********************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [command] ****************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [command] ****************************************************************
changed: [cache]
PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
cache : ok=4 changed=3 unreachable=0 failed=0
步骤二:变量过滤器,创建一个用户,设置密码

[[email protected] ansible]# vim user1.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
tasks:
– user:
name: lisi
group: root
password: “{{‘123456’ | password_hash(‘sha512’)}}”
– shell: chage -d 0 lisi
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook user1.yml
PLAY [cache] ******************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [user] *******************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [command] ****************************************************************
changed: [cache]
PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
cache : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0
步骤三:定义一个变量创建用户

[[email protected] ansible]# vim user2.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
vars:
user: zhangs
tasks:
– user:
name: “{{user}}”
group: root
password: “{{‘123456’ | password_hash(‘sha512’)}}”
– shell: chage -d 0 “{{user}}”
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook user2.yml
PLAY [cache] ******************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [user] *******************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [command] ****************************************************************
changed: [cache]
PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
cache : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0
3 案例3:handlers练习
3.1 问题

本案例要求:
安装Apache软件
配置文件,重新载入配置文件让服务生效
使用handlers来实现
3.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。
步骤一:error

playbook从上往下顺序执行,若报错,后面的命令不会在执行,若想解决有两种方法:
1)当返回值为假时,显示true: – shell: setenforce 0 || true
[[email protected] ansible]# vim user5.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
vars:
user: bb
tasks:
– shell: setenforce 0 || true
– user:
name: “{{user}}”
group: root
password: “{{‘123456’ | password_hash(‘sha512’)}}”
– shell: chage -d 0 “{{user}}”
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook user5.yml
PLAY [cache] ******************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [command] ****************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [user] *******************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [command] ****************************************************************
changed: [cache]
PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
cache : ok=4 changed=3 unreachable=0 failed=0
2、忽略:ignoring_errors: True(推荐使用这个,会有报错信息,告诉你错误忽略,继续执行下面的命令)
[[email protected] ansible]# vim user6.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
vars:
user: bb
tasks:
– shell: setenforce 0
ignore_errors: True
– user:
name: “{{user}}”
group: root
password: “{{‘123456’ | password_hash(‘sha512’)}}”
– shell: chage -d 0 “{{user}}”
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook user6.yml
PLAY [cache] ******************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [command] ****************************************************************
fatal: [cache]: FAILED! => {“changed”: true, “cmd”: “setenforce 0”, “delta”: “0:00:00.004198”, “end”: “2018-09-07 11:08:14.936959”, “msg”: “non-zero return code”, “rc”: 1, “start”: “2018-09-07 11:08:14.932761”, “stderr”: “setenforce: SELinux is disabled”, “stderr_lines”: [“setenforce: SELinux is disabled”], “stdout”: “”, “stdout_lines”: []}
…ignoring
TASK [user] *******************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [command] ****************************************************************
changed: [cache]
PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
cache : ok=4 changed=3 unreachable=0 failed=0
步骤二: handlers

关注的资源发生变化时采取的操作
1) 使用handlers来配置文件,重新载入配置文件让服务生效
[[email protected] ansible]# vim adhttp.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
tasks:
– copy:
src: /root/httpd.conf
dest: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
owner: root
group: root
mode: 0644
notify:
– restart httpd
handlers:
– name: restart httpd
service: name=httpd state=restarted
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook adhttp.yml
PLAY [cache] ******************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] ********************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [copy] *******************************************************************
ok: [cache]
PLAY RECAP ********************************************************************
cache : ok=2 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0
[[email protected] ansible]# ssh cache apachectl -t
Syntax OK
[[email protected] ansible]# curl 192.168.1.56:8080
hello world
2)使用脚本调用变量更改服务
[[email protected] ansible]# vim adhttp2.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
vars:
server: httpd
tasks:
– copy:
src: /root/httpd.conf
dest: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
owner: root
group: root
mode: 0644
notify:
– restart “{{server}}”
handlers:
– name: restart “{{server}}”
service: name=httpd state=restarted
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook adhttp2.yml
PLAY [cache] ************************************************************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] **************************************************************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [copy] *************************************************************************************************************
ok: [cache]
PLAY RECAP **************************************************************************************************************
cache : ok=2 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0
[[email protected] ansible]#
4 案例4:编写playbook
4.1 问题

本案例要求:
把所有监听端口是8080的Apache服务全部停止
4.2 步骤

实现此案例需要按照如下步骤进行。
步骤一:把监听端口是8080的Apache服务全部停止

[[email protected] ansible]# vim ad.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
tasks:
– shell: netstat -atunlp | awk ‘{print $4}’| awk ‘-F:’ ‘{print $2}’
register: result
– service:
name: httpd
state: stopped
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook ad.yml
PLAY [cache] ************************************************************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] **************************************************************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [command] **********************************************************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [service] **********************************************************************************************************
changed: [cache]
PLAY RECAP **************************************************************************************************************
cache : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0
步骤二:when条件判断

1)当系统负载超过0.7时,则关掉httpd
[[email protected] ansible]# vim when.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
tasks:
– shell: uptime | awk ‘{printf(“%.2f”,$(NF-2))}’
register: result
– service:
name: httpd
state: stopped
when: result.stdout|float > 0.7
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook when.yml
PLAY [cache] ************************************************************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] **************************************************************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [command] **********************************************************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [service] **********************************************************************************************************
changed: [cache]
PLAY RECAP **************************************************************************************************************
cache : ok=3 changed=2 unreachable=0 failed=0
步骤三:with_items标准循环

1)为不同用户定义不同组
[[email protected] ansible]# vim add.yml

– hosts: web2
remote_user: root
tasks:
– user:
name: “{{item.name}}”
group: “{{item.group}}”
password: “{{‘123456’|password_hash(‘sha512′)}}”
with_items:
– {name: “aa”, group: “users”}
– {name: “bb”, group: “mail” }
– {name: “cc”, group: “wheel”}
– {name: “dd”, group: “root” }
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook add.yml
PLAY [web2] *************************************************************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] **************************************************************************************************
ok: [web2]
TASK [user] *************************************************************************************************************
changed: [web2] => (item={u’group’: u’users’, u’name’: u’aa’})
changed: [web2] => (item={u’group’: u’mail’, u’name’: u’bb’})
changed: [web2] => (item={u’group’: u’wheel’, u’name’: u’cc’})
changed: [web2] => (item={u’group’: u’root’, u’name’: u’dd’})
PLAY RECAP **************************************************************************************************************
web2 : ok=2 changed=1 unreachable=0 failed=0
2)嵌套循环,循环添加多用户
[[email protected] ansible]# vim add1.yml

– hosts: web2
remote_user: root
vars:
un: [a, b, c]
id: [1, 2, 3]
tasks:
– name: add users
shell: echo {{item}}
with_nested:
– “{{un}}”
– “{{id}}”
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook add1.yml
PLAY [web2] *************************************************************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] **************************************************************************************************
ok: [web2]
TASK [add users] ********************************************************************************************************
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’a’, 1])
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’a’, 2])
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’a’, 3])
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’b’, 1])
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’b’, 2])
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’b’, 3])
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’c’, 1])
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’c’, 2])
changed: [web2] => (item=[u’c’, 3])
PLAY RECAP **************************************************************************************************************
web2 : ok=2 changed=1 unreachable=0 failed=0
步骤四:tags给指定的任务定义一个调用标识

1)tags 样例
[[email protected] ansible]# vim adhttp.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
tasks:
– copy:
src: /root/httpd.conf
dest: /etc/httpd/conf/httpd.conf
owner: root
group: root
mode: 0644
tags: config_httpd
notify:
– restart httpd
handlers:
– name: restart httpd
service: name=httpd state=restarted
2)调用方式
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook adhttp.yml –tags=config_httpd
PLAY [cache] *****************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] *******************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [copy] ******************************************************************
ok: [cache]
PLAY RECAP *******************************************************************
cache : ok=2 changed=0 unreachable=0 failed=0
3)include and roles
在编写playbook的时候随着项目越来越大,playbook越来越复杂。可以把一些play、task 或 handler放到其他文件中,通过包含进来是一个不错的选择
roles像是加强版的include,它可以引入一个项目的文件和目录
一般所需的目录层级有
vars:变量层
tasks:任务层
handlers:触发条件
files:文件
template:模板
default:默认,优先级最低

tasks:
– include: tasks/setup.yml
– include: tasks/users.yml user=plj
//users.yml 中可以通过{{ user }}来使用这些变量
handlers:
– include: handlers/handlers.yml
步骤五:debug检测

[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook –syntax-check http.yml //检测语法
playbook: http.yml
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook -C http.yml //测试运行
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook http.yml –list-tasks
//显示要执行的工作
playbook: http.yml
play #1 (cache): cache TAGS: []
tasks:
install one specific version of Apache TAGS: []
lineinfile TAGS: []
replace TAGS: []
service TAGS: []
copy TAGS: []
[[email protected] ansible]# vim debug.yml

– hosts: cache
remote_user: root
tasks:
– shell: uptime |awk ‘{printf(“%f\n”,$(NF-2))}’
register: result
– shell: touch /tmp/isreboot
when: result.stdout|float > 0.5
– name: Show debug info
debug: var=result
[[email protected] ansible]# ansible-playbook debug.yml //运行
PLAY [cache] ************************************************************************************************************
TASK [Gathering Facts] **************************************************************************************************
ok: [cache]
TASK [command] **********************************************************************************************************
changed: [cache]
TASK [command] **********************************************************************************************************
skipping: [cache]
TASK [Show debug info] **************************************************************************************************
ok: [cache] => {
“result”: {
“changed”: true,
“cmd”: “uptime |awk ‘{printf(\”%f\\n\”,$(NF-2))}'”,
“delta”: “0:00:00.005905”,
“end”: “2018-09-07 12:57:51.371013”,
“failed”: false,
“rc”: 0,
“start”: “2018-09-07 12:57:51.365108”,
“stderr”: “”,
“stderr_lines”: [],
“stdout”: “0.000000”,
“stdout_lines”: [
“0.000000”
]
}
}
PLAY RECAP **************************************************************************************************************
cache : ok=3 changed=1 unreachable=0 failed=0

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